Friday, May 13, 2005

The Origins of Centaurs

No one knows what Kentauros looked like. (Indeed, few people seem to know who Kentauros is.) Neither Edith Hamilton nor Bulfinch's compendia of Greek mythology include accounts of the origins of centaurs, and when other mention it, it usually to say that centaurs were born when the human Ixion lay with a cloud in the shape of Hera. The moral of that story -- that Ixion's unnatural lust for the goddess, compunded by the fact that it was in fact a cloud (or, in other accounts, the cloud nymph Nephele) with whom he slept, could only produce monsters -- is echoed in other myths, such as that of Pasiphae and the Minotaur. But in the earliest account I have found -- that of Pindar, who precedes just about everyone except Homer and Hesiod -- Ixion's union with the simulacra of Hera produced Kentauros, called a monster but otherwise undescribed. It was Kentauros's mating with the Magnesian mares that produced the race of hippocentaurs, the half-horse, half-humans known today simply as centaurs.

Here is Pindar's account, from Pythian II:

Far were the Graces when Cloud
Bore him a monstrous issue,
She like nothing, and like nothing It;
Which found no favor among men, nor in
The company of the Gods.
She nursed It and called It Kentauros: and It lay
With the Magnesian mares on Pelion's foot-hills.
And a race was born
Prodigious, in the image of both parents,
Their nether parts of the mother, their father's above.

(tr. C.M. Bowra, from the Penguin Odes)

The word kentauros seems to mean bull-slayer. (My ancient Greek is very weak but consulting Donnegan seems to confirm this.) One can see what Pindar was getting at: the union of a human and a nymph could only produce something human in appearance; but if its monstrous nature (a produce of its monstrous conception) led it to mate with animals, the resulting offspring would partake of both parents.

But of Kentauros nothing else (that I can find) was said by any ancient source. Pindar's "far from the Graces" means that its birth was unblessed (the more literal Myers translation available from Perseus says "without favour of the Graces"), so that although he was nurtured by his mother, his cursed nature was recognized -- by a validating source whose authority was beyond appeal -- even before his birth. From this, we gather, came a life of solitude, including erotic solace found only among a herd of horses in Thessaly.

A potentially interesting figure, Kentauros. But I have never read anything else about him.

79 Comments:

Blogger Maureen McHugh said...

This has the scent of backfill. Greek mythology is of course not even the somewaht unified body of work that I thought it was when I was a kid reading Bullfinch. What they believed in Thessely is different from what they believed in Macedonia, although with lots of significant overlap on the major stuff.

So I'm wondering. Centaurs always seemed to be to be an obvious creature, a clear illustration of hopes and fears (wouldn't lots of people like the strength and mobility of a horse--centaurs are the perfect riders, literally at one with their steed but also, anyone who has spent any significant time with horse knows that there are so many ways that you don't want to be one.) I'm thinking the centaur stories came first, and the creation myth might have come later, maybe even as poetry.

6:25 AM  
Anonymous L.N. Hammer said...

Greg, have you read Gantz's account in Early Greek Myth? He covers the early artistic evidence for everything, not just literary -- and many myths are attested in far earlier form in art than words. Kentaurs in general, I remember, are a very early motif.

I can report more when I get home.

---L.

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Blogger Gregory Feeley said...

Centaurs indeed show up in Greek art very early, significantly earlier than they do in literature. (The sparse references to centaurs in Homer are interestingly inchoate: there is a brief mention of Cheiron, "most righteous of the centaurs," but they are called the "hairy beast men" in a reference to the battles that drove them from Thessaly. It is not clear whether Homer intended these two allusions to denote the same species of creature.)

Unfortunatley, none of the early images -- I have been looking at them online -- give any indication of the creatures' origin. For that you need to go to the literature, and I can find very little before 4th century B.C.

I haven't read Gantz, though I do have G.S. Kirk's The Nature of Greek Myths. Checking the entry on Amazon, I see that Gantz defines "early" as Aeschylus and the early Sophocles. Okay, going by that criterion, I have found no early references to centaurs in literature other than Pindar and Homer. Does he know of any others?

11:16 AM  
Anonymous L.N. Hammer said...

Amazon is being slightly misleading: Gantz's reviews early materials up to the tragedists, with spot checks of later texts if they shed light on earlier sources, rather than starting with.

Lessee -- Homer with "beast" (pher) for the opponents of the Lapiths,Cheiron called "most just of the Kentauroi," and wine their undoing, but no description or origin. Horse men in statuettes and vase paintings from 900 BCE on, which may or may not be centaurs -- one shows Perseus cutting off the head of a horse/woman Medusa, suggesting the form was a representation for several monsters. He discusses the different alternate representations (front legs human or equine?), used in scenes identifiable with myths of centaurs, which stablize in the sixth century.

Origin tales: Thoegeny calls Cheiron the offspring of Phillyra; the Gigantomachia and Pherekydes elaborate that Kronos took on the form of a horse to mate with her; Pindar n Pythian 4 later uses this parentage, and implies his Cheiron is married to Charilko -- who is attested in art, shown as entirely human, and with human offspring. Pythian 2 is the first tale of the origin of the race, as opposed to Cheiron alone. Gantz suggests possibly the form of Cheiron was transferred to the beasts who fought the Lapiths, and then an origin story was created for them. Some later authors give Cheiron the same parentage as the other centaurs.

Regarding gender, a description of a painting of the late fifth or early fourth centuries of a female centaur calls it novel, suggesting that they were unknown before then. Regarding mortality, certainly the opponents of the Lapiths and Heracles were mortal; on the other hand, Sophocles and Apollodorus (in re: Prometheus unbinding) descrive Cheiron as immortal, squaring with his separate birth; and on yet another hand, Pindar (Pythian 3) calls Cheiron dead (Ovid alludes to his wounding and death, but doesn't say how).

And that's a summary. Nothing you didn't know, I suspect.

---L.

6:18 PM  
Blogger Gregory Feeley said...

I made that post because I had spent all week trying to resume work on a story (SF) that was related, on the level of metaphor, to the plight of centaurs. I find that I am not in fact yet ready to return to that story, but the post sparked someting else, which I am working great guns upon. So I won't be musing any more about Kentauros and centaurs here, but not because I have dropped the subject.

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